Science Behind the Effects of Cell Phones Waves

Biological and physiological effects

There had been a lot of experimental research on the biological effects of RF and microwave fields that are broad and includes studies of volunteers, animals and in vitro, cell-based techniques. The studies cover the effects of RF and microwave radiation between 100 MHz and 60 GHz and focus both on the functional changes in the brain (influence of exposure to RF and microwave fields on the head) and on carcinogenic processes, reproduction and development, the cardiovascular system and longevity (as a result of whole body exposure to RF and microwave fields).
The biological effects observed on the cardiovascular, endocrine and immune systems and on the behaviour of animals studied seem to be thermal effects of acute exposure to RF and microwave radiation, with increases of at least 1 °C or 2 °C in temperature needed to produce these effects. As to the increased risk of developing cancer after exposure to RF or microwave fields, the evidence for such an association is extremely weak. Since the radiation from mobile phones and signal stations does not have enough energy to break chemical or molecular bonds directly, there is no basis in theory to suggest that they can damage DNA. Moreover, a biological mechanism that explains any possible carcinogenic effect from RF or microwave fields has yet to be identified. Because of the difficulties in interpreting findings from laboratory studies, the hypothesis that RF or microwave radiation is harmful and could have effects on health that have not yet been recognized cannot be rejected.
In vitro experiments that show abnormal cell proliferation, changes in cell membranes, and movement of ions and substances across membranes are difficult to extrapolate to people. It is also difficult to extrapolate to people the observed effects on cerebral functions that relate to the behaviour of rodents since, among other reasons, the whole brain of these small animals is exposed to radiation whereas the brains of people who use mobile phones, although being exposed, receive the highest exposure in the part closest to the handset. Moreover, the thermal effects of radiation are unlikely to be seen in people, as the increase in the local temperature of the brain induced by the microwaves generated by mobile phones is negligible (it has been estimated to be up to 0.1 °C).
Clinical effects
Within human population studies, epidemiological studies provide the most direct information on the long-term effects on health of any potential harmful agent. To assess the adverse effects on health that may result from the use of mobile phones, research with a specific focus on cancer has been carried out. By the end of the 1990s, the number of studies was small and the works presented major methodological limitations, the most outstanding one being the lack of enough people with an exposure time long enough to accurately assess the potential adverse late effects on health of mobile phone use.
With respect to brain tumours, most of the experimental studies yielded negative results, although a few of them suggested an increased risk for mobile phone users. Because of these results, it is not possible to establish an association between the use of mobile phones and an increased risk of brain tumours. With regard to acoustic neuroma – a rare, benign tumour on the auditory nerve – the studies available reported inconsistent results, except for the most recent ones, which found an association between an increase in the risk of this type of tumour and 10 years or more of mobile phone use; moreover, the increased risk is confined to the side of the head where the phone was usually held.
A number of clinical complaints related to the use of mobile phones are reported in the scientific literature. They include headache, fatigue, sleep disorders, loss of memory, dizziness, feelings of heat or tingling in the auricular (or auditory) area or in the head, vertigo, deafness and blurred vision. Very few studies are available, and their results provide no evidence of an association between these symptoms and the use of mobile phones.


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