LI-FI – A DETAILED ANALYSIS

Light Fidelity or Li-Fi is a visible light Communications (VLC) system that runs the wireless communication system which travels at a very high speed.

Li-Fi makes use of commonplace household LED (light emitting diodes) light bulbs to enable statistics switch, higher speeds of as much as 224 gigabits according to second.

Working:

Li-Fi and Wi-fi both on contrary are pretty similar as each transmits electromagnetically. However, wi-fi makes use of the radio waves while Li-Fi utilizes the visible light.

Li-Fi is nothing but a visible light Communications (VLC) machine. which comprises an image-detector to acquire mild indicators and transform the statistics into ‘stream able’ content by a sign processing element.

A LED light bulb is a semiconductor mild supply meaning that the consistent modern of energy supplied to a LED light bulb may be dipped and dimmed, up and down at extremely high speeds, without being visible to the human eye.

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As an example, the data is filled into a LED light bulb (with signal processing technology), it then sends statistics (embedded in its beam) at speedy speeds to the photodetector (photodiode).

The tiny adjustments of the wireless in the speedy dimming of LED bulbs is then transformed by using the ‘receiver’ into electrical signals.

The signals are then converted into a binary data movement that we’d realize as internet, video and audio programs that run on internet supported gadgets.

Difference between Li-Fi and Wi-Fi:

While some may think that Li-Fi with its 224 gigabits in step with 2nd leaves wi-fi within the dirt, Li-Fi’s special use of visible light ought to halt a mass uptake.

Li-Fi alerts can’t pass via walls, so one can experience complete connectivity, capable LED bulbs will want to be positioned at some point of the home. Now not to say, Li-Fi calls for the lightbulb is on at all times to offer connectivity, that means that the lighting fixtures will need to be on at some stage in the day.

What’s greater, in which there’s a lack of lightbulbs, there is a lack of Li-Fi internet so Li-Fi does take successfully in relation to public wi-fi networks.

In an assertion the day past, an extension of well-known wi-fi is coming and it is represented as wi-fi HaLow.

This new challenge claims to double the range of connectivity at the same time as the usage of much less electricity. Because of this, wi-fi HaLow is reportedly ideal for battery powered gadgets inclusive of smartwatches, smartphones and lends itself to the internet of things and gadgets including sensors and smart packages.

But it’s not all doom and gloom! due to its spectacular speeds, Li-Fi may want to make a huge impact on the Internet of things too, with statistics transferred at a good deal higher tiers with even greater devices able to connect to one another.

5G Standards Battle Continue following the 3GPP Event

The push to quicken the “5G” norms prepare hopes to have hit a transitory tangle as the point was put on hold taking after the late Third Generation Partnership Project Plenary meeting in Vienna, Austria.

As per a report from Signals Research Group, endeavours were again made to have a form of 5G norms accessible by March 2018, which would incorporate a non-remain solitary rendition of the innovation requiring the nearness of LTE for an arrangement. This variant, which is alluded to as “Alternative 3,” would slide in front of the general Release 15 standard that is still booked for June 2018.

5G Technology

5G Technology

SRG noted defenders of the quickened plan “recommended that 3GPP basically creates two arrangements of specialized determinations – one arrangement of TS reports for the usefulness in the proposed early discharge and one arrangement of TS archives at the full finishing of Release 15.” The expert and research firm showed 3GPP did not consent to the change, however, it could be returned to at the following 3GPP meeting booked for March 2017.

At a past 3GPP meeting in New Orleans, a contradiction sprung up between an AT&T-drove bunch hoping to get some type of 5G benchmarks on the books before the finish of 2017, which is well in front of 3GPP’s underlying course of events of mid-2018, which was countered by a gathering that included Verizon Communications in needing to keep the calendar as seems to be. The AT&T amass clarified it required more opportunity for testing a portion of the norms to be prepared for mid-2018 arrangements.

Thelander contemplated Verizon Communications was maybe hoping to slow down AT&T’s progression regarding 5G work for its own arrangements for settled broadband administration trials that have as of now earned various industry accomplices, while AT&T then again was making Verizon look excessively forceful.

3GPP Standards and Development

3GPP Standards and        Development

“Verizon Wireless needs to indicate early authority, so they can’t quicken their arrangements any quicker, however, what you can do is basically delay or drag out the capacity of others to convey something,” Thelander clarified. “In spite of the fact that Verizon’s open articulation of why they need to not quicken things is fairly legitimate, I think the genuine reason is distinctive.”

Another thing on the docket at the Vienna meeting was a name for the following versatile innovation cycle. An understanding hoped to have been gone after 3GPP to utilize the “5G” term for all usefulness starting with Release 15, including LTE, however, Thelander noted no less than one noteworthy administrator has since enlisted some pushback to the term. There had been talking that 3GPP would utilize the “New Radio” assignment for 5G-related work.

SRG noted the NR expression would stay associated with new radio get to; E-UTRAN, or developed UMTS earthbound radio access network, would allude to a radio get to a network that interfaces with an advanced bundle center; and 5G-RAN would allude to a radio access network that interfaces with a 5G center system.

Another subject noted by SRG was work by 3GPP on narrowband “Internet of things,” which is set to handle enormous machine sort interchanges utilize cases. The most recent meeting showed a proposition for new NB-IoT highlights that would incorporate support for unlicensed range; however, no formal choice was made by 3GPP on the point.

DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION ARE STEPPING THE TECHNOLOGY AHEAD

In recent times, “digital transformation” has become a buzz phrase employed in many alternative contexts to sit down with the transformation that several businesses around the world are either browsing or attempting to realize. It’s additional or less a reference phrase at intervals telecommunication businesses nowadays, a customer package several things along, with the most focus being on technologies; from new ways that of client on-boarding victimization multi-channel interfaces, through e-invoicing, video-on-demand, and IPTV. Whereas from a technology perspective, it’s fully sensible to speak concerning “digital” or “digitalisation”, will it replicate the business issues that several of today’s organizations are facing?

These challenges embrace the requirement to experiment with new services that give new or increased client experiences.  What’s additional, businesses wish to be able to strive them quickly and use the results to gauge whether or not to scale-up or ramp-down services, so as to resonate with the pace dynamic  demands from customers.

Agility, speed, scales – these are some of the words which will most likely haunt your mind if you’re a business owner. But “digitalisation” won’t give organizations with business edges if it cannot additionally enhance customers’ lives and supply the gracefulness needed to change them to embrace the new technological innovations that are dynamic in consumers lives radically and therefore survive in this competitive world!

Of course, digitalization is additionally a tool which is able to change organizations to face these challenges and address the continual innovation in technology that net firms and OTT suppliers are transferrals into the buyer area. This may ultimately influence client habits in mobile communications, social media, and media consumption, further because the homemade freedom that reduces dependency on others. Nowadays their new paradigms rising around client habits that are expertise familiarized and arguably enhancing client lives – be it Instagram, WhatsApp, Facebook or Amazon.

For example, the full paradigm of real-life window-shopping in a very superstore or mall is currently happening in a browser, beside the power to seek out what we would like ourselves or through location and social media based mostly recommendations that mimic cooperative looking with a fan. By just attempting out however we glance with a dress and eventually finishing the group action, the buyer looking expertise has evolved to new heights, giving enriched client experiences.

Only by cultivating digitalization of a store’s offerings, can reach the consumer’s life be enriched with new experiences, whereas additionally providing business edges to the service supplier.  So, rather than concerning “digitalisation challenges,” why not talk “enabling new client experiences” once concerning what firms are attempting to achieve? True “digitalisation” or “business transformation” isn’t about tools, however concerning the requirement to become additional client-centric so as to produce the improved customer experiences their customers demand.

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Building a flourishing digital future:

The digital future guarantees many innovative opportunities for telecommunication suppliers to rework end–user expertise produce new revenue streams, innovative in operation models and considerably scale back in operation prices. This needs telecommunication suppliers to seem on the far side simply the front–end program systems and embrace a comprehensive end–to–end digital strategy. This may involve a digital–led transformation across the chain from front–office and middle–office to back–office technologies.

In order to undertake this digital journey, suppliers got to holistically align their networks, operations, and systems to operate as a part of a completely digital system that necessitates a sensible combination of the ‘right folks, processes, and technologies’. Organisations got to adopt a customer–centric approach so as to map network changes and initiatives on the options and functionalities demanded by customers.

While front-end systems may well be the start purpose for the transformation; the subsequent elements got to be worked upon for a holistic digital overhaul.

Summary:

As the expectations are increasing, customers are systematically pushing the suppliers and players at intervals to the communication system to produce superior and innovative digital experiences across a spread of devices and channels. So as to realize this, a ‘design thinking’ based mostly approach is needed to deliver a unified Omni–channel expertise, making a decisive impact on client satisfaction and loyalty.

Telecom service suppliers should adopt a holistic digital strategy for increased end–user experiences and services innovation, increasing opportunities to make new revenue streams and reducing at operation prices. However, the digital strategy has to be enforced as a comprehensive strategy, wherever processes, resources, and networks got to be holistically aligned to operate as a part of a completely digital system.

Wireless Fidelity(Wi-Fi)- A Detailed Study

Wireless fidelity or Wi-Fi is emerging technology prevalent these days. With this technology, the information’s can be exchanged between two or more devices. It is exclusively designed for mobile computing devices, but can also be used in electronics like televisions, DVD players. The two possibilities of communicating with the Wi-Fi connection through  the client’s access point connection or client to client connection.

Wi-Fi is a type of wireless technology commonly referred as wireless LAN (local area network). They allow local area networks to work without cable and wiring. They remain the best choice for home and business networks. A wireless adaptor transmits the data into a radio signal which in turns transferred to antennas and for users.

Wi-Fi is high speed internet connection without the need for any cable or wires. They operate in three essential elements like radio signal, antenna and router.  The key to Wi-Fi is radio waves. The cell phones and computers are provided with Wi-Fi cards. A new creation to constituent the Wi-Fi compatibility, within the ground that is connected with community networks. Security is the important element in Wi-Fi technology. Security is a personal opinion but it is necessary to protect our private details.

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Types of WI-FI Technologies:

They are four major types of WIFI technologies we use currently.

  • Wi-Fi-802.11a
  • Wi-Fi-802.11b
  • Wi-Fi-802.11g
  • Wi-Fi-802.11n

They are defined by the format and structure of the radio signals sent out by WI-FI antennas and networking routers.

Advantages:

  • Wireless laptop are handy and can be carried anywhere.
  • Wi-Fi network communication devices can reduce the cost of wires, without wire
  • Wi-Fi setup and configuration is easy
  • It provides completely safe and does not interfere with any network
  • We can also connect internet through hot spots
  • We can connect internet wirelessly

Disadvantages:

  • Wi-Fi radiations can harm the human health
  • Whenever we are not using the server, we must disconnect the Wi-Fi connection
  • Some limitations are there to transfer the data, and cannot transfer the data for long distance
  • The implementation is quiet expensive when compared to the other.

 

Types of antennas available and determining its usage

The broadcast antenna can transmit the boosted signal inside the structure.

 

Panel Antenna:

  • They transmit and receive signal in a 70 degree beam width. They are ideal for wall mounts or hiding above ceiling 4-10 dB of gain. They will radiate a signal for 50-70 feet in a specific direction, depending on incoming signal.

 

PANEL ANTENNA

PANEL ANTENNA

Dome Antennas:

 

  • They transmit and receives signal in a 360 degree pattern. Ideal for drop ceiling and ceiling mount installs 3-5 dB gain. They will radiate a signal for 20-50 feet in each direction, depending on the incoming signal.

 

  • They are not recommended for installations over 20 feet high.

 

DOME ANTENNA

DOME ANTENNA

 

A cellular booster that can get the job done right on all frontiers

WilsonPro 4000R cell phone booster is best for businesses operating within multi-story buildings including large offices, industrial metal-framed buildings, hospitals, convention centers, warehouses, schools. It is best for establishments with basements and multiple floors, including underground floors, libraries and underground parking spaces. Basically, if a cell booster is needed for a large indoor area, then businesses will find Wilson 4000 R cell phone signal booster to be a huge advantage for making wireless communication strong indoors.
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The cell booster has on board software specifically to make control much better. As such, every indoor path of the antenna is automatically and independently controlled. The software also ensures there’s wider and better connectivity across multi-story buildings and gigantic spaces. Every port is controlled independently. Each port adjusts its own gain level down and up effortlessly, as needed as per immediate signal conditions within that environment. This happens without any disruption of any antenna coverage.
The XDR (Extra Dynamic Range) technology that comes with the 4000R guarantees continuous connectivity. As a result, the cell booster tolerates excessive signal better than other competing boosters. It deflects the strongest signal by lowering its power to prevent damaging the cellular network without shutting itself down. Wilson Electronics’ proprietary XDR technology makes sure the booster does not shutdown when the signal is too strong. Continuous connectivity is assured as the signal strength does not overpower the WilsonPro 4000R which in other signal boosters, results in an immediate shutdown.
Most cell boosters out there are not the easiest to access. Not so with the 4000R. Its LCD color screen sets it apart, including its four-way inimitable navigation that makes integration effective, and easy.
The WilsonPro 4000R is compatible with 4G, 3G and 2G services. It works with cellular enabled mobile devices such as iPad, Tablets, Galaxy series, iPhones and other Smartphones and devices. All United States carriers are compatible with the signal booster, including 3G and 4 LTE networks. This includes Metro PCS, C SPire, Leap Wireless, US Cellular, T-Mobile, Sprint, Verizon Wireless and AT&T among others. At the same time all Canadian carriers, 3G and 4G LTE as well, are also covered, such as Wind, Fido, Telus, Bell, Rogers among others. The 4000R works with diverse frequencies from 700MHz-bands 13, 12/17, AWS 1700-2100 MHz-band 4, 1900MHz-band 2 and 850MHz-band 5.

Mac OS X Lion over Windows 8 or Vive-Versa??

Everybody is interested to see what would happen if we compare the performance of a very early version of Microsoft’s upcoming desktop OS with Apple’s released one, and we thought you would be, too. Windows 8 is far from finished, but its creators have made bold claims about performance. I’ve already compared the Windows 8 Developer Preview with Windows 7, which presented its own challenges.
Comparing with Mac OS X introduces even more hazards. On one hand the version of Windows 8 we test with here, the Developer Preview is far from finished—it’s not even ready to be called a “beta”—and code optimization is usually among the last tasks in any software project. On the other hand, we have Apple’s fully baked and optimized Mac OS X Lion, which has been a released product for over six months. Add to this that Lion is finely tuned to mesh with the Apple hardware it runs on, compared with Windows, which must run on a huge array of different hardware combinations from many vendors.
Despite all the warnings, as you’ll see, Windows 8 was surprisingly up to the challenge. And indeed, some of Windows 8’s developers’ big claims are that it will take up less memory, run fewer CPU processes, and boot faster, all of which should add up to better performance.

The time it takes to get your computer up and running can make the difference between getting that idea down or information retrieved in time or not. To determine the startup time for each OS, I started the stopwatch (actually an iPhone) at the point of choosing the OS from the multi-boot menu (arrived at by holding the Option key after pressing the start button) and stopped it when the desktop displayed and was functional. My results here were quite shocking: Windows 8 booted faster on the MacBook than OS X Lion did! Of course, Lion is a bigger OS with more tools and features at this point, so there’s probably a good reason for this. The difference was 31 seconds for Lion, and 26 seconds for Windows 8 Developer Preview.

For shutdown times, the opposite state of affairs prevailed: OS X Lion shut down completely in under 3 seconds, while Windows 8 took 16 seconds. I ran the stopwatch from the time of choosing the equivalent of the “really shut down” choice in each OS to the time the laptop’s motors all went quiet. It would seem that if Lion is loading more code into memory, it would need more time to save state and so on for shutdown. And Windows 8’s developers have made claims about much more efficient state-saving for that OS’s shutdown, but the numbers don’t lie: Mac OS X Lion has a far more efficient shutdown procedure.
In another surprise, Windows 8 bested Lion slightly on this test. Since the benchmark is mostly designed to rate the hardware, any slight improvement is a feather in the OS software’s cap. Windows 8 showed a nearly 17 percent edge over Lion.
Conclusion
These tests confirm that: Windows 8 is no slouch – so far. It feels snappy on pretty much any hardware you throw it at. And here we are at a very early stage in its pre-release. It speaks well that the nascent OS can hold its own against a mature, fully optimized, hardware specific OS like Lion. It’s worth mentioning again that it’s early days yet, and we can’t possibly know how much more code Microsoft is going to add to Windows 8 in the next few months, but we can hope that they don’t add too much to bog it down before release. It certainly seems that their strategy this time is in the opposite direction, towards honing it down.

SureCall – The name says it all !!

The SureCall Fusion7 Cellular, WiFi and HDTV Signal Booster kit is the first 7 band booster on the market and will boost the voice, 3G and 4G LTE networks for most of the carriers in North America (except for Sprint 4G LTE), WiFi, and HDTV channels as well. It comes with everything that you need to start boosting cell signals, WiFi and HDTV, including all of the necessary cellular antennas, cables, a WiFi router to interface with the existing network, an HDTV antenna, and the Fusion7 amplifier which will boost all of the signals it receives.

The SureCall Fusion7 Signal Booster Kit is designed for use in the US and Canada. It may also work in other countries except in most European, Asian, and African countries because the frequencies used there are different from what are used in North America.
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Key Features of the Product

  • First 7-Band Signal Booster in the Industry
  • Boost cell phone reception, extend WiFi coverage, and improve HD signal
  • Reduce dropped calls
  • Highest 4G data rate in the Industry
  • Extend cell phone battery life
  • Boosts voice, 3G and 4G LTE data signals for most major North American cell carriers
  • Kit includes everything you need for easy installation

Many variables impact the total coverage area of a signal booster system. The following are estimates only and may not be accurate in any individual situation.

Coverage Area:

  • If you have an existing strong 5-bar outside signal, you may get up to 6,000 sq ft of coverage inside
  • If you have an existing 3 to 4-bar (-90 dB) outside signal, you may get up to 5,000 sq ft of coverage inside
  • If you have an existing 1 to 2-bar (-100 dB) outside signal:
    • With an Omnidirectional outside antenna, you may get up to 1,000 sq ft of coverage inside
    • With a Directional outside antenna, you may get up to 3,000 sq ft of coverage inside
  • If you have no existing outside signal, this kit will offer no improvement.  You must have some existing signal outside for this kit to be beneficial.

Supported Carriers:

The SureCall Fusion7 Signal Booster Kit supports the voice, 3G and 4G LTE networks from most carriers in the US and Canada. Here is a more detailed breakdown of the carriers, networks and frequencies boosted by the SureCall Fusion7:

  • AT&T 2G, 3G, 4G H+ & 4G LTE
  • Verizon 2G, 3G & 4G LTE
  • Sprint 2G & 3G
  • US Cellular 2G, 3G & 4G LTE
  • T-Mobile 2G, 3G & 4G LTE
  • All other carriers using 700 MHz, 800 MHz, 1900 MHz, and 1700/2100 MHz (AWS)

 

Science Behind the Effects of Cell Phones Waves


Biological and physiological effects

There had been a lot of experimental research on the biological effects of RF and microwave fields that are broad and includes studies of volunteers, animals and in vitro, cell-based techniques. The studies cover the effects of RF and microwave radiation between 100 MHz and 60 GHz and focus both on the functional changes in the brain (influence of exposure to RF and microwave fields on the head) and on carcinogenic processes, reproduction and development, the cardiovascular system and longevity (as a result of whole body exposure to RF and microwave fields).
mobile-phone-radiation
The biological effects observed on the cardiovascular, endocrine and immune systems and on the behaviour of animals studied seem to be thermal effects of acute exposure to RF and microwave radiation, with increases of at least 1 °C or 2 °C in temperature needed to produce these effects. As to the increased risk of developing cancer after exposure to RF or microwave fields, the evidence for such an association is extremely weak. Since the radiation from mobile phones and signal stations does not have enough energy to break chemical or molecular bonds directly, there is no basis in theory to suggest that they can damage DNA. Moreover, a biological mechanism that explains any possible carcinogenic effect from RF or microwave fields has yet to be identified. Because of the difficulties in interpreting findings from laboratory studies, the hypothesis that RF or microwave radiation is harmful and could have effects on health that have not yet been recognized cannot be rejected.
In vitro experiments that show abnormal cell proliferation, changes in cell membranes, and movement of ions and substances across membranes are difficult to extrapolate to people. It is also difficult to extrapolate to people the observed effects on cerebral functions that relate to the behaviour of rodents since, among other reasons, the whole brain of these small animals is exposed to radiation whereas the brains of people who use mobile phones, although being exposed, receive the highest exposure in the part closest to the handset. Moreover, the thermal effects of radiation are unlikely to be seen in people, as the increase in the local temperature of the brain induced by the microwaves generated by mobile phones is negligible (it has been estimated to be up to 0.1 °C).
Clinical effects
Within human population studies, epidemiological studies provide the most direct information on the long-term effects on health of any potential harmful agent. To assess the adverse effects on health that may result from the use of mobile phones, research with a specific focus on cancer has been carried out. By the end of the 1990s, the number of studies was small and the works presented major methodological limitations, the most outstanding one being the lack of enough people with an exposure time long enough to accurately assess the potential adverse late effects on health of mobile phone use.
With respect to brain tumours, most of the experimental studies yielded negative results, although a few of them suggested an increased risk for mobile phone users. Because of these results, it is not possible to establish an association between the use of mobile phones and an increased risk of brain tumours. With regard to acoustic neuroma – a rare, benign tumour on the auditory nerve – the studies available reported inconsistent results, except for the most recent ones, which found an association between an increase in the risk of this type of tumour and 10 years or more of mobile phone use; moreover, the increased risk is confined to the side of the head where the phone was usually held.
A number of clinical complaints related to the use of mobile phones are reported in the scientific literature. They include headache, fatigue, sleep disorders, loss of memory, dizziness, feelings of heat or tingling in the auricular (or auditory) area or in the head, vertigo, deafness and blurred vision. Very few studies are available, and their results provide no evidence of an association between these symptoms and the use of mobile phones.

Did you choose the best Cell Phone Signal Booster for your Home?

A weak cell signal is frustrating, and it can happen anywhere. Dead spots aren’t just a plague for people living out in the boondocks. I have experienced this a lot of times when I lived in a small apartment I rarely had more than one bar of reception inside my apartment. I always dropped calls, failed to download apps and had incoming calls go straight to voicemail. Something was obviously blocking the signals from reaching me, because as soon as I went outside, the single bar of reception turned to five and everything returned to the way I expected. I could have avoided this with a cell phone signal reception booster.
There are two types of consumer mobile phone signal boosters – vehicle cell phone boosters and home cell phone boosters . An outside antenna receives a signal from a cell tower and sends the signal to an amplifier that emits the boosted signal through an inside antenna. The difference between the two types is the FCC regulations that cap the vehicle gain at 50 dB, which has a coverage area that will cover your vehicle but nothing else. Home cell phone boosters are less regulated and can have a max gain as high as 72 dB, which covers about 6,000 square feet.
There are few standard criteria one should follow when choosing a cell phone signal booster.
Needed Coverage Area
The first consideration for a home cell phone booster would be the coverage area you need. Does your entire home suffer from weak signals, or is it a specific area? There are home cell phone boosters designed for a single room or an entire house. The higher the max gain, the better the range. The best cell phone signal boosters for a home have a max gain of 72 dB with a range of approximately 6,000 square feet , but you can also get cell phone boosters that only cover the range of a desk.
Outside Signal Strength
Once you’ve determined how much area needs to be covered, you’ll need to check out the strength of the outside signal. Wherever you find the strongest signal is where you’ll install the outside antenna.
Antenna Type
Unlike with cell phone boosters for cars, there are several different types of outside antennas to consider. An omnidirectional antenna is ideal for urban or suburban areas where the outside signal is strong but the inside signal is weak or non-existent. This is because it can receive signals from all directions and has a short range. Its main objective is to pump the outside signal inside.
A directional antenna is ideal for rural areas where the weak signal is the result of being too far from the cell tower. It has a much higher forward gain than an omnidirectional antenna. The best directional antennas have a forward gain of 14 dBi, which is like the difference between binoculars and a telescope. It can see much further, but it has to be pointed in the right direction to be effective.
Cable Length
Home cell phone boosters have two coax cables. The longest one leads from the antenna to the signal booster, while the shorter one leads from the signal booster to the inside antenna. You want to keep the length of the outside cable as short as possible, because the signal strength decreases by up to 3.9 dB for every 100 feet of cable. When you consider that every 3 dB change in a signal represents an exponential increase or decrease, cord length is important.